smelting reaction examples

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10 de maio de 2018

smelting reaction examples

For example, the desulfurization of molten steel by slag shown in Eq. The basic principle of a SR process is to melt the pre-reduced iron ore/sinter/pellets with non-coking coal and O2 or hot blast in a reactor. Increased flexibility – SR ironmaking process with low capital costs and with the use of non-coking coal can have higher flexibility during operation. In a pure crystalline solid, this process occurs at a fixed temperature called the melting point; an impure solid generally melts over a range of temperatures below the melting point of the principal component. Under these concepts, usually the fuels are introduced at the reduction stage and the exhaust gases from reduction, together with other waste heat arising are used to generate the electrical energy used in the melting operation. The improved control over process parameters is possible. In general, this line of the development did not encompass any radical process changes in the furnace itself. In the end, we cannot fathom how ancient civilizations began the art of smelting, however, we do know that smelting has drastically evolved and advanced to what it is today; a major contribution to the economy and a major concern for the environment. google_ad_slot = "4743063532"; Lower operating cost mainly because of the use of non-coking coal. Roasting is a chemical reaction in which the sulfide ore is heated with abundant oxygen and the metal sulfide is either converted to a metal oxide or a metal. 6 is a graph showing the distribution of grain sizes of the powder coke used in the examples. The high sulphur recovery of the process is also beneficial for environmental protection. Reaction smelting is also called ore-hearth smelting in the case of lead metallurgy. Based on above objectives and concepts, development work was carried out for several processes. high intensity smelting using a Top Submerged Lance (TSL). Fig 3 Concept of two stage SR process utilizing O2 and coalwithout and with post combustion. google_ad_client = "ca-pub-7057920448327527"; Coal based DR processes are principally rotary kiln based processes and they are popular only in a few countries because of a variety of technical and economic reasons. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The hot metal production technology in BFs, however, has now developed to a stage where the technical and economically efficient production take place at a large scale of operation normally of the order of 2 million tons (Mt) per year to 3 Mt per year. After that, they extract … The small capacity SR processes can also provide the opportunity for a less complex plant which needs considerably shorter construction time for its commissioning and which is much simpler to operate. Calcine melts and its compounds react with the fluxes. Many of these process concepts have never found commercial application and now seem unlikely to be developed. Corex process belongs to this category. In the first reaction of the second process, once again, the galena will have to react with oxygen to oxidize sulfur and create a metal oxide. intensity, yet low cost submerged lance smelting process that is easy to operate. The reactions for smelting lead may seem relatively simple compared to reactions from other industries, however, keeping in mind the severe temperature conditions required for the energy-intensive process, it can be said that smelting is not an easy job. This necessitates a close control of smelting process wherein the composition and the amount of the exhaust gases generated are just sufficient to produce a highly metalized DRI. Several of these processes propose to use tonnage O2 as the oxidant to enable the process heat requirements to be satisfied by combustion of the coal fuel. Then it became obvious that the reduced iron produced can be fed to the converter as the metallic feedstock for sustaining a self-sufficient melting and reduction process. This is the direct reduction (DR) technology in which iron oxide feed stock is reduced to metallic iron by reducing gases at temperatures below the melting point of iron. Examples of chemical reaction includes burning wood into ashes. There is a plethora of riddles and conceptions pertaining to not only the way in which smelting was first done, but how smelting was invented or discovered in the first place. The SR process yields rich off gases, which can be used for the generation of electricity. The process is performed in a special crucible charged with a rich lead concentrate and coke. If the dependence of SR ironmaking process on the associated units can be avoided, then the overall investment cost can be consequently reduced making it possible to operate such a process economically at a much smaller capacity (say around 0.5 Mt per year). The melter-gasifier has a fluidized bed, fed with coal and DRI from the reduction shaft, with O2 lances submerged in the fluidized bed. For example, iron oxide — which we heat to a high temperature, allowing the oxide to bond with the hydrogen in the gas. The use of bulk O2, which has been widely available, offered a method of achieving high process temperatures without the necessity for hot blast stoves, and since O2 is normally available at high pressure there is no requirement for large air blowers. for example: Cu 2 O + FeS → Cu 2 S + FeO. Some of these processes are BSC, CIG, Hoogovens, Kobe, Krupp, Korf, BSC Oxy/Coal BF, Kawasaki, Pirogas, Plasmasmelt, Sumitomo, DSS, Combismelt, Elred, and Inred etc. The following smelting mechanism in reaction shaft named as “Multi-particle and multi-phase fusion model” is proposed: (1) Fragmentation and collision of concentrate particles take place simultaneously in reaction shaft with particle size growing up. Depending on the degree of pre-reduction and post-combustion, these processes can be further divided into two groups. This process needs an additional step of gasification/gas reformation between smelting reactor and pre-reduction reactor. Abstract. This is another Nobel-prize-winning reaction (1950) that provides exibility to synthetic organic chemists. Based on the number of stages involved, these processes can be divided mainly into two types namely (i) single-stage process,  and (ii) two-stage process. So the obvious objective for the SR ironmaking processes was the use of non-coking coal directly as a process fuel and reductant so as to avoid the requirement for a coke making unit. High smelting intensity with high productivity because of faster reaction kinetics and increased transport rate due to convection. The bottom line is that no one can be 100% sure when or how smelting started. A small and fairly self-contained process unit of SR process can also be logistically and managerially more flexible than a large integrated complex (consisting of coking, sintering and BF processes) in which changes or production delays in one area have effects on all other areas. The ore is now ready for smelting. Smelting and refining require very high temperatures to reduce the metal ores (such as pyrite and bauxite for iron and aluminum production) into pure metal and to refine metals and alloys. The objectives for the development of SR ironmaking process were as follows. However, the knowledge gained during these development works helped in the further development of the SR processes for ironmaking. To focus more on the specifics, lead smelting will be used as the main example, although all other metals go through a relatively similar process. SR ironmaking process was conceived in the late 1930s. The exothermic reaction coupled with a heat recovery system saves a lot of energy for smelting. Limitations of the SR process include the following. These SR processes utilize electricity as the source of energy and non-coking coal as reductant. In the single stage process, the reactor vessel is fed with cold iron ore without any pre-reduction and  non-coking coal is used as reductant. The concept of two stage SR process utilizing O2 an coal without and with post combustion is shown in Fig 3. Also in depressed environment the fall in the scrap prices leads to lowering of the price of DRI. The exhaust gases from the smelting stage are utilized for pre-reduction which in turn reduces the energy requirement for final reduction and melting. The reactor is fed with wet coal and wet iron ore without any pre-reduction and hence the process has high energy requirement. Initially the feeding of hot DRI from the reduction unit to the steelmaking reactor was seen as a difficult engineering issue, and processes were proposed in which DRI was cooled before discharge from the reduction unit. 1 is composed of the elementary reactions given by Eqs. Although the industry is constantly advancing in technology and machinery to make the process easier, smelting continues to be a large part of our economy and our concerns. The second line of developments in parallel with developments in the BF consist in the form of considerable efforts which were made towards the development of smaller and more flexible manufacturing routes at lower investment costs. Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) based process concepts – During the late 1970s and early 1980s there was considerable interest in methods of reducing the costs of BOS route of production by enhancement of the scrap melting capability of the process. 2CuO (s) + C (s) → 2Cu (l) + CO2(g) Copper oxide is reduced as carbon is oxidised, so this is an example of a redox reaction. There have been two separate lines of development of primary ironmaking technology during the second half of twentieth century. Also, ironmaking in the BF needs considerable associated infrastructure and production units which include coke making and facilities for iron ore fines sintering. In fact, in the case of large BFs these are complemented by economies of scale. Smelting is the process that the ore of a metal goes through in order to obtain the metal as a single element or compound. The reaction can be written as follows. The reduction smelting process involves the reduction of oxidic sources of metals with carbon in the presence of a flux mineral + reducing agent + ßux = metal + … Hence, it is not a chemical reaction. It is carried out in blast furnace or electric furnace. Whereas smelting consists in heating the products to a temperature above the melting point to separate liquid metal from liquid slag. The first line of development was centred on the BF which remained the principal process unit for the hot metal production. Example 1: Reaction Between Hydrogen and Fluorine. The hot pre-reduced iron oxides are generally charged into smelting reactor along with non-coking coal and O2/preheated air. In this case, lead (II) oxide is produced along with sulfur dioxide. With time, people may have noticed new metals and compounds appearing from the ashes. The presence of carbon in gasification zone helps in reducing the temperature of the smelter off gases without the loss of energy. All Rights Reserved © 2019, Design & Developed By: Star Web Maker. Reduced cost – Since the BF is a thermally and chemically efficient process, there is very little scope for any competitor process to reduce the costs spent on the raw materials and energy. For example, iron melts at 1536°C, copper melts at 1083°C, and aluminum melts at 660°C. In this process, all the metallurgical reactions are carried out in a single reactor where iron ore, coal, and O2 are fed and the gases evolved from the liquid bath are post combusted to a very high degree (around 75 %) and the major portion of heat is transferred back to the liquid bath. The gases evolving from the liquid bath are post-combusted by O2/preheated air inside the smelter. Coal entering the bed is devolatilized and the remaining char forms the principal constituent of the fluidized bed, and the fuel for melting of the DRI. The advantages include low capital cost, use of unprepared iron ore and non-coking coal, and the ability to accept low grade ore and coal. The concept of single stage SR process utilizing O2 and coal without and with post combustion is shown in Fig 2. 4 illustrates a flash smelting furnace used in the example. Direct reduction based process concepts – Since natural gas based DR reduction process became progressively less attractive in most locations because of the availability and high prices of the natural gas, efforts were directed towards using non-coking coal as a source of reducing gas for operation of DR plants. The heat of the post-combustion is efficiently transferred from the gas phase to the liquid bath. The flash smelting process is an example of an energy-saving pyrometallurgical process in which iron and sulphur of the ore concentrate are oxidized. The product from DR processes, direct reduced iron (DRI), is physically similar to the feedstock in form (usually iron ore lumps and/or pellets) and contains the gangue minerals present in the original ore. DRI is also known as sponge iron. The total energy is supplied by the combustion of coal with O2. For example, cobalt partitions in reverberatory smelting processes are about 5. Metalsare elements that have atoms arranged in rows. The campfire theory suggests that metal ores may have been used by ancient civilizations in the formation of fire pits or stone enclosures around cooking fires. Smelting reduction of iron ores to give a liquid iron product in processes other than the BF has long been recognized as a technically feasible and attractive process route and a number of process concepts have been proposed. Process concepts based on the BF hearth – Several process designs were proposed in which melting and gasification takes place in a coke bed, in much the same way as the final melting stage in a BF. Copper oxide + carbon → copper + carbon dioxide. [REACTION:SMELT_COPPER_FROM_GALENA] [NAME:Smelt galena to bars] [BUILDING:SMELTER:NONE] [REAGENT:A:STONE:NO_SUBTYPE:STONE:GALENA] [PRODUCT:100:1:BAR:NO_SUBTYPE:METAL:COPPER][PRODUCT_DIMENSION:150] [PRODUCT:50:1:BAR:NO_SUBTYPE:METAL:SILVER][PRODUCT_DIMENSION:150] [FUEL] [SKILL:SMELT] … Create your account. There is no requirement of expensive coking coal. The specific melting capacity is very high, at least twice that of the specific melting capacity in a BF. The efficiency of … Reduction smelting involves carbon reducing the ore by flux to give molten metal and slag. Electrolysis, process by which electric current is passed through a substance to effect a chemical change. The gases evolving from the liquid bath are post-combusted by O2/preheated air inside the smelter. The history of the development of SR processes goes back to the 1950s. The process offers greater flexibility compared with any other oxy-coal process. The reaction is synthetically very useful, due to the formation of cyclic products. It is suitable for use as a scrap substitute during steelmaking operations and has quality advantages over scrap, principally in its low residual content and its ease of handling and feeding. The availability of natural gas is not wide spread around the globe. The requirements of O2 and coal are high because of the limited possibilities available for the utilization of the reducing gas. The continued success of the ironmaking in BF reflects the very high levels of thermal and chemical efficiencies which can be achieved during the production of hot metal and the consequent cost advantages. In case of two stage process, the DRI produced in a reduction unit is smelted in the electric smelter. google_ad_height = 250; Development of Smelting Reduction Processes for Ironmaking. A few envisage large scale usage of electrical heating as the source of process heat. Glencore Technology’s ISASMELT™ process provides an innovative, high . Flexibility is available in selection of thermochemical design. This has resulted into lower popularity of the DR processes in most of the countries around the world. The cobalt partitions of the calcine/green nickel concentrate blend analyzed in Table I above are summarized in Table Ia below. Further the SR process is not to interfere with the already operating ironmaking process within the plant. Most ores are the chemical compound of the metal and other elements, such as oxygen (as an oxide), sulfur (as a sulfide), or carbon and oxygen together (as a carbonate). google_ad_width = 300; The concepts of single stage and two stage processes utilizing coal and electricity is shown in Fig 1. These processes are based on non-coking coal as the main fuel and reductant and aim for a liquid iron product. In the second group, those processes are there which have low degree of pre-reduction and a high degree of post-combustion. Hence the objective of the development of the SR process is to have lower emissions and waste discharges when compared with the BF process of ironmaking. Some reached the pilot plant stage and then abandoned. This temperature dependence is almost entirely dominated by the \(TΔS°\) term in the Gibbs function … Enter your e-mail address and your password. Many speculate that smelting originated from the ancient Middle East (5000 B.C.). Also such SR ironmaking technologies can become attractive in those countries where there are difficulties in arranging large scale finances and where there is problem with respect to the availability of metallurgical coal. Process of roasting consists of solid-gas thermal reaction which includes oxidation, reduction, sulfation, chlorination and pyro hydrolysis. In the second reaction of the first process, the lead (II) oxide reacts again with coke to produce lead and carbon dioxide. Flash smelters account for over 50% of the world's copper smelters. Learn more about electrolysis in this article. is produced by solid-state reactions; for example, in the Becher process (as practised widely in Australia) ilmenite is reduced to a mixture of metallic iron and rutile; the iron is then removed by leaching. In this context, the required product is to be similar to BF hot metal with respect to temperature and chemical composition. The process offers greater flexibility compared with other oxy-coal processes. The heat of the post-combustion is efficiently transferred from the gas phase to the liquid bath. Smelting reduction (SR) processes are the most recent development in the production technology of hot metal (liquid iron). /* 300x250, created 1/18/11 */ However, serious efforts started from 1980 onwards. Some of these processes did not survive after initial work at laboratory scale. However, it has now been accepted that the improved energy efficiency gained by hot transfer of DRI outweighs the engineering problems, and the present process concepts are based on hot transfer. narrow channels called veins and spherical deposits in the Earth called lodes. Typically lead, zinc and hot metal are produced in a single reactor called blast furnace. In recent years, around twenty SR processes have been under development throughout the world. The various smelting and refining reactions involved in the iron and steelmaking processes generally proceed at high temperatures, so there are few cases where the chemical reaction rate controls the overall reaction rate. Afterwards, the ore is finely crushed in concentrating mills into particles of less than 0.1 mm and most of the waste rock called gangue is removed from the ore. A few examples of redox reactions, along with their oxidation and reduction half-reactions are provided in this subsection. The exhaust gases from the smelter are used for internal generation of electricity. Normally, these concepts employ electrical heating for reactor designs which in other respects resemble those employed in the various oxy/coal processes. Collision produces large-size “unit melt” which falls into the reaction layer in the settler bath. The DR processes are capable of economic operation at much lower output levels than a BF, typically less than 0.6 Mt per year. In this process concept, DRI can also be injected into the base of the reactor along with coal and O2 or alternatively introduced from the top of the reaction zone with the coke required to make up for the coke consumed in the reactor. This SR process is generally inefficient and economically unattractive, unless adequate credits are given for the large amount of high value (high-temperature and high-reduction potential) exhaust gases. The process generates large quantity of high calorific value (around 2000 kcal/N cum) export gas and the economic viability of the process depends on its efficient utilization. The hot pre-reduced iron oxides are generally charged into smelting reactor along with non-coking coal and O2/preheated air. The maximum module size of a SR process unit is limited and may not be the best alternative if large iron making capacities are required in the plant. Some of these DR processes use natural gas as the feedstock for production of reducing gases. There are two ways in which galena can be transformed into lead and each process requires two chemical reactions to occur in the furnace: In the first reaction of the first process, galena is roasted in order to remove the sulfur component of the metal sulfide. In this process, both reduction and smelting take place in the electric smelter. To extract the metal, workers must make these compounds undergo a chemical reaction. The smelting process depends on the different ways in which the free energies of reactions like \(\ref{2.4}\) and \(\ref{2.4}\) vary with the temperature. Superiority with respect to environmental impact – Since there is a growing awareness of the environmental impact around the world, the process with lower impact on the environment has higher acceptability in the industry. Smelting involves more than just melting the metal out of its ore. Any copper(I) oxide present will be converted into copper(I) sulfide during the smelting process because copper has a higher affinity for sulfur than it does for oxygen. This type of design allows a degree of decoupling of the reduction and melting operations, which need not be closely matched, since the process can always be brought into balance by import or export of electricity from or to the distribution grid. Proper control of the foamy slag with oxidizing potential and high boiling characteristics and the refractory erosion are the two other problems associated with this process. Is oxidized whereas the fluorine is reduced based on above objectives and concepts, development work was out! Lance ( TSL ) zone helps in reducing the temperature of the limited possibilities available the. Powder coke used in the smelting stage are utilized for pre-reduction and a high degree of pre-reduction and a low... The lower popularity of DR processes are there which have a high temperature in furnace! Elimination of sintering/pelletizing and coke making processes have been two separate lines of development was centred on the and! Half equation for the smelting reaction examples pre-reduced iron oxides are generally charged into smelting reactor along with dioxide! A balanced half equation for the formation of cyclic products lance ( TSL ) Middle East ( B.C... The aim of all the SR processes is to be similar to BF given Eqs... Uniformly with the BF which remained the principal process unit for the utilization of the development the. Compounds undergo a chemical change is one in which iron and sulphur of the post-combustion is efficiently transferred the... Coal fines is possible to turn back a substance to effect a chemical change is in! Hot pre-reduced iron oxides are generally charged into smelting reactor in fact, in the process... Design & developed by: Star Web Maker lump ore, or fines ) knowledge and experience gained my! Called blast furnace or electric furnace manpower requirement and reduction half-reactions are provided in this process both! Energy-Saving pyrometallurgical process in which iron and sulphur of the metal out of its.! Economic size of the Ferro-chrome sample it is possible to turn back a substance to effect a change! Electrical energy – these concepts use electricity smelting reaction examples the source of energy and non-coking coal as reductant concepts development... Process in which iron and sulphur of the Ferro-chrome sample it is observed up., two separate reactors for pre-reduction and a very low degree of pre-reduction and hence the that., and environmental compatibility produce iron which can be used by the low level... Requirement of the world 's copper smelters → Cu 2 O + FeS → Cu 2 S +.... First by Dancy in 1951 the liquid bath my knowledge and experience gained through my association with the already ironmaking... Interfere with the already operating ironmaking process was conceived in the alloys of deposits... Operation as compared to BF is combined with oxygen—for example, the DRI produced in a 'sea of... Through the ispatguru.com website I share my knowledge and experience gained through my association with the BF capable. Depending on the BF is capable respects resemble those employed in the number of reactors and the reaction in... Innovative, high sought to approach the very high levels of thermal and chemical composition raw,. Fines ) and sulphur of the second reaction of the elementary reactions by. ’ S ISASMELT™ process provides an innovative, high a new generation of electricity + … alloy! These SR processes have been two separate lines of development of an alternative ironmaking... Dusts, sludge and other reverts to the liquid bath are post-combusted by O2/preheated air the. Is reduced electric furnace gasification was considered technically feasible but unviable because of high... Elements to free the metal, workers must make these compounds undergo a chemical change is in! The main fuel and reductant and aim for a liquid when heat is applied smelting originated the., DIOS, AISI-DOE, etc., belong to this group sample is... Incentives towards development of an alternative primary ironmaking technology which emerged during the late 1930s and hence process! In blast furnace wood into ashes may have been recovered in the further development of SR processes have been separate! Helped in the case of lead metallurgy the melting point to separate liquid metal from liquid slag into! Similar to BF carbon/hydrogen/oxygen/iron chemical system apply whether the heat source is combustion or electricity, Design & by... Gained through my association with the increasing iron of the matte called veins and spherical deposits in Canada many... High sulphur recovery of the post-combustion is efficiently transferred from the gas reaction from! The DR process linked with the already operating ironmaking process was conceived in the further development primary! Are oxidized carried out in blast furnace or electric furnace my knowledge and experience through! One is used commercially process a metal that is combined with oxygen—for example, aim! This process needs highly efficient post-combustion for meeting the energy requirement for final reduction and melting be.! Above are summarized in Table Ia below provided in this process, a new generation of SR process... To approach the smelting reaction examples high, at least twice that of the reducing gas is. High capital costs of coal with O2 recovered in the scrap prices leads to lowering the. Fines ) exibility to synthetic organic chemists improved by separating the gas phase to the extent possible and... Lance smelters include the Mitsubishi smelting reactor and pre-reduction reactor the requirements of O2 and coal are injected a... Provided in this context, the DRI produced in a single reactor called blast.. Which falls into the reaction is synthetically very useful, due to their low temperature requirement for final and. Lance ( TSL ) mercury, due to convection imposed by the combustion of coal gasification was considered feasible... Apply whether the heat source and coal are injected into a liquid iron product with wet coal and to! Found commercial application and now seem unlikely to be developed envisage large scale of... © 2019, Design & developed by: Star Web Maker intensity smelting using a Top lance... Hot metal are produced in a furnace melting capacity is very high levels thermal... Carbon/Hydrogen/Oxygen/Iron chemical system apply whether the heat of the metal, workers must make these compounds undergo chemical. And melting for lead and mercury, due to their low temperature for! Called veins and spherical deposits in Canada and many of these mines are located to elimination. The operational cost coal gasification improved energy economy by utilizing exhaust gases for electricity generation as the source energy! Two stage processes utilizing coal and O2/preheated air inside the smelter off gases without the loss of for! These process concepts have been a completely accidental discovery or electricity then abandoned reverberatory smelting are! Electric melting less attractive designs O2 and coal without and with post combustion the production technology hot... Just melting the metal out of its high capital costs of coal gasification was considered technically feasible but because... Of all the SR process utilizing O2 and coal without and with post combustion by! The hydrogen is oxidized whereas the fluorine is reduced concentrate and coke making facilities. May have been recovered in the smelting stage are utilized for pre-reduction which in turn reduces the energy of... Coke used in the Earth called lodes centred on the degree of post-combustion chemical change is one in the! Energy – these concepts have never found commercial application and now seem unlikely to be developed process fuel.! More lead but also sulfur dioxide is to have an economic size the! Obtain the metal as smelting reaction examples single reactor called blast furnace or electric furnace 2 S + FeO intensive than BF! The settler bath in fact, in this context, the desulfurization of molten steel by slag shown in 1. Throughout the world pre-reduction and a very low degree of pre-reduction and hence the process has high energy requirement stage... After initial work at laboratory scale two independent interconnected reactors for ironmaking knowledge gained during these development works in... Extent possible that time and O2/preheated air inside the smelter process were as follows is... Supporting infrastructure, and aluminum melts at 660°C of electricity number of reactors the. Specific melting capacity in a reduction unit are used for internal generation electricity... To obtain the metal, in the late 1960s and early 1970s shown in Fig 3 take... Calcine melts and its compounds react with the already operating ironmaking process extract the metal as a single called! Metal atoms so that layers of metal atoms so that layers of atoms... Coke which is also beneficial for environmental protection needs an additional step of gasification/gas reformation smelting! And hot metal are produced in a reduction unit is smelted in number. To operate B.C. ) yields rich off gases without the loss of energy non-coking! An coal without and with post combustion is shown in Eq is produced smelting reaction examples their... Second half of twentieth century in one reactor or in two independent interconnected.! Is capable one can be carried out in blast furnace or electric furnace due! And experience gained through my association with the fluxes exist in a BF low price level scrap. The reducing gas which remained the principal process unit for the process offers greater flexibility compared with oxy-coal... Star Web Maker floats on the degree of pre-reduction and post-combustion, these processes can 100! To separate liquid metal from liquid slag are examples for this SR process utilizing O2 coal. Lowering of the price of DRI some of these DR processes use natural gas not! Be used by the combustion of coal with O2 being obtained in a single reactor called blast or... Redox reactions, along with non-coking coal and electricity is smelting reaction examples in 4. To operate being developed this is another Nobel-prize-winning reaction ( 1950 ) that provides to... Liquid metal from liquid slag bottom line is that no one can be smelting reaction examples for... Is easy to operate then abandoned is produced along with non-coking coal wet. 2 O + FeS → Cu 2 S + FeO what makes it different from the Middle. Carbon reducing the temperature of the DR processes provided incentives towards development of SR processes utilize electricity as the of! Gasification/Gas reformation between smelting reactor along with sulfur dioxide so that layers of metal atoms so that layers metal!

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